This will be a short introduction to knitting a sweater, some links to free patterns you can check out and then a two part video. All this should hopefully give you a good insight into how these patterns are worked, and hopefully you will try it out for yourself!
tahki stacy charles cardigan This is a cardigan, worked in rows rather than rounds, which gives you a lot of purling to do. If you are up for it though, you can make this beautiful cardigan for anyone sized S to XL on 4½ mm (US size 7) needles.
Raglan Sleeve Sacque No. 2003 this is a very cute little dress/shirt for a baby. Its worked on 3½ mm needles (US size 10½)
Raglan Sweater and Cap This is a small sweater and a cute bonnet. Its worked on needles US size 6. You can see the results on Ravelry here.
Raglan sweater from drops This is a simple sweater with a not so simple raglan increase.It's for adults, worked on needles US size 7
Raglan sweater from drops with lacy sleeves If you take away the lace and just knit the sleeves in stockinette, this is a super simple pattern. It is for adults and it is worked on needles US size 4
This is a short overview of the different steps in each of these types of patterns
Knit in the round until the collar is the height you want it. If you knit it very high, you will get a turtle neck.
Place stitch markers, this will usually be mentioned in the pattern. After this, repeat these two rounds until you reach a certain number of stitches. If you prefer another type of increase, replace yarn overs with a right leaning and then a left leaning increase of your choice.
R1: *knit to before next stitch marker, yarn over, slip stitch marker, knit 1, yarn over* repeat from * to * four times (all around)
R2: knit all stitches.
Get some yarn and slip the stitches for the sleeves (the shorter sides). They are shown in red here.
Pick up stitches for the sleeves and work in the round until the sleeves are the length you want.